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Everett Bailey
Everett Bailey

Secrete __FULL__



If you guessed that the secret to the origins of secrete is the word secret, you are correct. Secrete developed in the mid-18th century as an alteration of a now obsolete verb secret. That verb had the meaning now carried by secrete and derived from the familiar noun secret ("something kept hidden or unexplained"). The noun, in turn, traces back to the Latin secretus, the past participle of the verb secernere, meaning "to separate" or "to distinguish." Incidentally, there is an earlier and distinct verb secrete with the more scientific meaning "to form and give off (a secretion)." That secrete is a back-formation from secretion, another word that can be traced back to secernere.




Secrete



Antigen-presenting cells contain a specialized late endocytic compartment, MIIC (major histocompatibility complex [MHC] class II-enriched compartment), that harbors newly synthesized MHC class II molecules in transit to the plasma membrane. MIICs have a limiting membrane enclosing characteristic internal membrane vesicles. Both the limiting membrane and the internal vesicles contain MHC class II. In this study on B lymphoblastoid cells, we demonstrate by immunoelectron microscopy that the limiting membrane of MIICs can fuse directly with the plasma membrane, resulting in release from the cells of internal MHC class II-containing vesicles. These secreted vesicles, named exosomes, were isolated from the cell culture media by differential centrifugation followed by flotation on sucrose density gradients. The overall surface protein composition of exosomes differed significantly from that of the plasma membrane. Exosome-bound MHC class II was in a compact, peptide-bound conformation. Metabolically labeled MHC class II was released into the extracellular medium with relatively slow kinetics, 10 +/- 4% in 24 h, indicating that direct fusion of MIICs with the plasma membrane is not the major pathway by which MHC class II reaches the plasma membrane. Exosomes derived from both human and murine B lymphocytes induced antigen-specific MHC class II-restricted T cell responses. These data suggest a role for exosomes in antigen presentation in vivo.


Adrenal adenomas are benign (noncancerous) tumors in your adrenal glands. Your adrenal glands are small, triangular glands located atop both of your kidneys. They secrete hormones that help your body respond to stress. Your adrenal glands also release hormones that regulate your blood sugar, blood pressure and immune system, among other essential functions.


Your adrenal glands have two parts, your adrenal cortex and your adrenal medulla. Your adrenal cortex secretes hormones, including cortisol and aldosterone. The adrenal medulla produces dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Adrenal adenomas form in your adrenal cortex.


Adrenal adenomas can become cancerous, but this is rare. The most common cancerous tumor that forms in your adrenal glands is adrenocortical carcinoma. Like adrenal adenomas, functioning adrenocortical carcinoma tumors secrete excess hormones. They may cause symptoms similar to functioning adrenal adenomas.


1640s, in animal physiology, "act of preparing and expressing substances by glandular activity;" 1732 as "that which is secreted," from French sécrétion, from Latin secretionem (nominative secretio) "a dividing, separation," noun of action from past participle stem of secernere "to separate, set apart" (see secret (n.)).


In the 17th century, cavalrymen, especially fashion-conscious members of the gentry or aristocracy, who wished to wear fashionable broad-brimmed felt hats, but also retain some level of protection for the head, would employ a hidden helmet called a secrete. This type of helmet could also be worn by civilians, including some of the judges at Charles I's trial, who believed that their safety was threatened. The existence of a large number of secrete helmets of a very similar type all stored together in the Tower of London suggests that they were occasionally issued to troops as a uniform piece of military equipment.[1][2]


The secrete was usually a small skull-cap of iron or steel pierced around its rim. The piercing allowed it to be sewn into the inside of a hat. The secrete was then undetectable to any observer, but offered considerably more protection from edged weapons than could a felt hat alone. Many different designs were used, some had solid domes, others were ring-shaped with a scalloped lower edge, presumably to save weight. A few exceptional examples had a folding cage of bars, which could be drawn down to afford protection to the face when in action. A further type of head protection which could be considered to fall under the same category, as it was intended to deceive the observer and mimic civilian headgear, was an entire broad-brimmed hat made of iron or steel. Such hat-helmets were either covered in cloth, or blackened and given a dulled finish so as to resemble felt. King Charles I of England is recorded as possessing such a helmet.[3][4]


Carcinoid syndrome occurs when a rare cancerous tumor called a carcinoid tumor secretes certain chemicals into your bloodstream, causing a variety of signs and symptoms. A carcinoid tumor, which is a type of neuroendocrine tumor, occurs most often in the gastrointestinal tract or the lungs.


Carcinoid syndrome is caused by a carcinoid tumor that secretes serotonin or other chemicals into your bloodstream. Carcinoid tumors occur most often in the gastrointestinal tract, including your stomach, small intestine, appendix, colon and rectum.


Only a small percentage of carcinoid tumors secrete the chemicals that cause carcinoid syndrome. When these tumors do secrete the chemicals, the liver normally neutralizes the chemicals before they have a chance to travel through your body and cause symptoms.


However, when an advanced tumor spreads (metastasizes) to the liver itself, it may secrete chemicals that aren't neutralized before reaching the bloodstream. Most people who experience carcinoid syndrome have an advanced cancer that has spread to the liver.


Some carcinoid tumors don't have to be advanced to cause carcinoid syndrome. For instance, carcinoid lung tumors that secrete chemicals into the blood do so farther upstream from the liver, which then cannot process and eliminate the chemicals.


Carcinoid tumors in the intestine, on the other hand, secrete the chemicals into blood that must first pass through the liver before reaching the rest of the body. The liver usually neutralizes the chemicals before they can affect the rest of the body.


The enzymes secreted by the exocrine gland in the pancreas help break down carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and acids in the duodenum. These enzymes travel down the pancreatic duct into the bile duct in an inactive form. When they enter the duodenum, they are activated. The exocrine tissue also secretes a bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid in the duodenum. This is the first section of the small intestine.


The main hormones secreted by the endocrine gland in the pancreas are insulin and glucagon, which regulate the level of glucose in the blood, and somatostatin, which prevents the release of insulin and glucagon.


Whoever, during the life or after the death of the testator, for a fraudulent purpose, takes and carries away, or destroys, mutilates, or secretes, a testamentary instrument, shall be imprisoned not more than five years. In addition to any other penalty provided under this section, a person may be fined an amount not more than the amount set forth in [ 22-3571.01].


Jing Cao, Chris Murat, Carol Anne Ogden, Sandra Santulli-Marotto, Xiang Yao, Ian R Harris, George Inana; Human umbilical tissue-derived cells secrete bridge molecules and rescue phagocytosis in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells from Royal College of Surgeons rat. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):1728. 041b061a72


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